Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics

Advanced search

Prevention of cerebrovascular diseases and cognitive impairment in psychiatric and neurological practice: A literature review

Full Text:


Increased life expectancy and related demographic changes, as well as lifestyle modification in the population enhance a steady rise in the incidence of disorders in middle and later life. It increases the burden of diseases and overloads healthcare systems. Therefore prevention strategies are currently on the cutting edge and becoming more and more essential. The article discusses approaches to preventing the most common mental and neurological disorders in middle and old age. It also describes cerebrovascular disease, dementia, cognitive impairment, and stroke and outlines some state-of-the-art prevention strategies.

About the Authors

A. G. Merkin
Institute for Advanced Training, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia 91, Volokolamskoe Shosse, Moscow 125371
Russian Federation

V. A. Kazhin
Institute for Advanced Training, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia 91, Volokolamskoe Shosse, Moscow 125371 Acad. E.A. Vagner Perm State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Perm, Russia 26, Petropavlovskaya St., Perm 614990 Praxis Schaffhausen, Switzerland Bachstrasse 40, 8200 Schaffhausen, Switzerland
Russian Federation

A. N. Komarov
Clinical Hospital, Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia 45, Losinoostrovskaya St., Moscow 107150
Russian Federation

A. V. Fonarev
N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia 1, Ostrovityanov St., Moscow 117997
Russian Federation

V. A. Priyatel
Central Mental Hospital, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia 12, Kriulinsky Passage, Elektrostal, Moscow Region 144001
Russian Federation

I. A. Nikiforov
Institute for Advanced Training, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia 91, Volokolamskoe Shosse, Moscow 125371
Russian Federation


1. Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, et al. Disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2197-223. doi: 10.1016/ S0140-6736(12)61689- 4.

2. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2095-128. doi: 10.1016/S0140- 6736(12)61728-0.

3. Mendis S. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014: World Health Organization. mechanism/publications/global-status-report-ncds-2014-eng.pdf.

4. Суслина ЗА, Пирадов МА, редакторы. Инсульт: диагностика, лечение, профилактика. Руководство для врачей. Москва: МЕДпресс-информ; 2009. 288 с. [Suslina ZA, Piradov MA, editors. Insul't: diagnostika, lechenie, profilaktika. Rukovodstvo dlya vrachei [Stroke: diagnostics, treatment, prevention. A guide for physicians]. Moscow: MEDpress-inform; 2009. 288 p.]

5. Суслина ЗА, Варакин ЮЯ, Верещагин НВ, редакторы. Сосудистые заболевания головного мозга: эпидемиология, патогенетические механизмы, профилактика. Москва: МЕДпресс-информ; 2009. 350 с. [Suslina ZA, Varakin YuYa, Vereshchagin NV, redaktory. Sosudistye zabolevaniya golovnogo mozga: epidemiologiya, patogeneticheskie mekhanizmy, profilaktika [Vascular brain disease: epidemiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, prevention]. Moscow: MEDpress-inform; 2009. 350 p.]

6. Cappuccio FP. Commentary: epidemiological transition, migration, and cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol. 2004 Apr;33(2):387-8. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyh091.

7. Парфенов ВА. Профилактика болезни Альцгеймера. Неврология, нейропсихиатрия, психосоматика. 2011;3(3):8-13. [Parfenov VA. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Nevrologiya, neiropsikhiatriya, psikhosomatika = Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2011;3(3):8-13. (In Russ.)]. doi: 10.14412/2074-2711-2011-159

8. Дробижев МЮ. Распространенность психических расстройств в общемедицинской сети и потребность в психофармакотерапии. Психиатрия и психофармакотерапия. 2002;4(5):175-80. [Drobizhev MYu. The prevalence of mental disorders in primary care network and the need for pharmacotherapy. Psikhiatriya i psikhofarmakoterapiya. 2002;4(5):175-80. (In Russ.)].

9. Дробижев МЮ, Макух ЕА, Дзантиева АИ. Сосудистая деменция в общей медицине (аспекты эпидемиологии, бремени болезни, терапии). Психиатрия и психофармакотерапия. 2006;8(5):16-20. [Drobizhev MYu, Makukh EA, Dzantieva AI. Vascular dementia in general practice (aspects of epidemiology, disease burden, treatment). Psikhiatriya i psikhofarmakoterapiya. 2006;8(5):16-20. (In Russ.)].

10. Шахматов НФ. Психическое старение: счастливое и болезненное. Москва: Медицина; 1996. 304 с. [Shakhmatov NF. Psikhicheskoe starenie: schastlivoe i boleznennoe [Mental aging: a happy and painful]. Moscow: Meditsina; 1996. 304 p.]

11. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014 Aug 30;384(9945):766-81. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8. Epub 2014 May 29.

12. Alberti KG, Zimmet P. Global burden of diseasewhere does diabetes mellitus fit in? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013 May;9(5):258-60. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.54. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

13. Roberts JL, Clare L, Woods RT. Subjective memory complaints and awareness of memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;28(2):95-109. doi: 10.1159/000234911. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

14. Matthaei S, Munro N, Zinman B. Raising diabetes awareness in the public domain. Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Oct;59(10):1153-6.

15. Li X, Fang W, Su N, et al. Survey in Shanghai communities: the public awareness of and attitude towards dementia. Psychogeriatrics. 2011 Jun;11(2): 83-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1479- 8301.2010.00349.x.

16. Abd-Allah F, Moustafa RR. Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities. Int J Stroke. 2014 Dec;9(8):1105-8. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12313. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

17. Akinyemi RO, Izzeldin IM, Dotchin C, et al. Contribution of noncommunicable diseases to medical admissions of elderly adults in Africa: a prospective, cross-sectional study in Nigeria, Sudan, and Tanzania. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Aug; 62(8):1460-6. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12940. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

18. Jones SP, Jenkinson AJ, Leathley MJ, Watkins CL. Stroke knowledge and awareness: an integrative review of the evidence. Age Ageing. 2010 Jan;39(1): 11-22. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afp196. Epub 2009 Nov 6.

19. Strong K, Mathers C, Bonita R. Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Feb;6(2):182-7. doi: 10.1016/ S1474-4422(07)70031-5.

20. Fratiglioni L, Launer LJ, Andersen K, et al. Incidence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurologic diseases in the elderly research group. Neurology 2000;54(11 Suppl 5):S10-5.

21. Schneider JA. High blood pressure and microinfarcts: a link between vascular risk factors, dementia, and clinical Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Nov;57(11):2146- 7. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02521.x.

22. Schneider JA, Bennett DA. Where vascular meets neurodegenerative disease. Stroke 2010; 41(10 Suppl): S144-6.

23. Ritter A, Pillai JA. Treatment of vascular cognitive impairment. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015 Aug;17(8):367. doi: 10.1007/s11940-015-0367-0.

24. Feigin VL, Norrving B. A new paradigm for primary prevention strategy in people with elevated risk of stroke. Int J Stroke. 2014 Jul;9(5):624-6. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12300.

25. Kontis V, Mathers CD, Rehm J, et al. Contribution of six risk factors to achieving the 25×25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modelling study. Lancet. 2014 Aug 2;384(9941):427-37. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60616-4. Epub 2014 May 2.

26. Sacco RL, Smith SC, Holmes D, et al. Accelerating progress on non-communicable diseases. Lancet. 2013 Sep 7;382(9895):e4-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61477-3. Epub 2011 Sep 18.

27. Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, Krishnamurthi R, et al; Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) and the GBD Stroke Experts Group. Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2014 Jan 18;383(9913):245-54.

28. O'Donnell MJ, Xavier D, Liu L, et al. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study. Lancet. 2010 Jul10;376(9735):112-23. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60834-3. Epub 2010 Jun 17.

29. Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol. 1985 Mar;14(1):32-8.

30. Brindle P, Emberson J, Lampe F, et. al. Predictive accuracy of the Framingham coronary risk score in British men: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2003 Nov 29;327(7426):1267.

31. Dalton AR, Soljak M, Samarasundera E, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk amongst the population eligible for the NHS Health Check Programme. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013 Feb;20(1):142-50. doi: 10.1177/1741826711428797. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

32. Международная классификация болезней (Десятый пересмотр). Классификация психических и поведенческих расстройств. Клинические описания и указания по диагностике. Санкт-Петербург: Оверлайд; 1994. 300 с. [International classification of diseases (Tenth revision). Classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Clinical descriptions and guidelines for diagnosis. Saint Petersburg: Overlaid; 1994. 300 p.]

33. Захаров ВВ. Эволюция когнитивного дефицита: легкие и умеренные когнитивные нарушения. Неврология, нейропсихиатрия, психосоматика. 2012;4(2):16-21. [Zakharov VV. Evolution of cognitive deficit: mild and moderate cognitive impairments. Nevrologiya, neiropsikhiatriya, psikhosomatika = Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2012;4(2):16-21. (In Russ.)]. doi: 10.14412/2074-2711-2012-376

34. Graham JE, Rockwood K, Beattie EL. Prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment with and without dementia in an elderly popoulation. Lancet. 1997 Jun 21;349(9068):1793- 6.

35. Ritchie K, Artero S, Touchon J. Classification criteria for mild cognitive impairment: a populationbased validation study. Neurology. 2001 Jan 9;56(1):37-42.

36. Koivisto K, Reinikainen KJ, Hanninen T, et al. Prevalence of age-associated memory impairment in a randomly selected population from eastern Finland. Neurology. 1995 Apr;45(4):741-7.

37. Coria F, Gomez de Caso JA, Mingues L, et al. Prevalence of age-associated memory impairment and dementia in a rural community. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993 Sep;56(9):973-6.

38. Schroeder J, Kratz B, Pantel J, et al. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in an elderly community sample. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1998;54:51-9.

39. Barker A, Jones R, Jennison C. A prevalence study of age-associated memory impairment. Br J Psychiatry. 1995 Nov;167(5):642-8.

40. Lopez OL, Jagust WJ, DeKosky ST, et al. Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the cardiovascular health study cognition study. Arch Neurol 2003;60(10):1385-9. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.10.1385.

41. Petersen RC, Doody R, Kurz A, et al. Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol. 2001 Dec;58(12):1985-92.

42. Rodriguez-Sanchez E, Mora-Simon S, Patino-Alonso MC, et al. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study. BMC Neurol. 2011 Nov 17;11:147. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-147.

43. Levey A, Lah J, Goldstein F, et al. Mild cognitive impairment: an opportunity to identify patients at high risk for progression to Alzheimer's disease. Clin Ther. 2006 Jul;28(7):991- 1001.


45. Bruscoli M, Lovestone S. Is MCI really just early dementia? A systematic review of conversion studies. Int Psychogeriatr. 2004 Jun;16(2):129-40.

46. Buratti L, Balestrini S, Altamura C, et al. Markers for the risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(3):883-90. doi: 10.3233/JAD-143135.

47. Palmer K, BКckman L, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. Mild cognitive impairment in the general population: occurrence and progression to Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;16(7):603-11. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181753a64.

48. Palmer K, Berger AK, Monastero R, et al. Predictors of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2007 May 8;68(19):1596-602.

49. Wimo A, Winblad B, Aguero-Torres H, von Strauss E. The magnitude of dementia occurrence in the world. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2003 Apr- Jun;17(2):63-7.

50. World health organization and Alzheimer's disease international: dementia: a public health priority.

51. Hebert LE, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Annual incidence of Alzheimer disease in the United States projected to the years 2000 through 2050. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2003 Apr-Jun;17(2):63-7.

52. Hebert LE, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, Evans DA: Annual incidence of Alzheimer disease in the United States projected to the years 2000 through 2050. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2001 Oct-Dec;15(4):169-73.

53. Sun Y, Lee HJ, Yang SC, et al. A nationwide survey of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, including very mild dementia, in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 18;9(6):e100303. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100303. eCollection 2014.

54. Alzheimer's Association. 2009 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2009 May;5(3):234-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2009.03.001.

55. Hall CB, Verghese J, Sliwinski M, et al. Dementia incidence may increase more slowly after age 90: Results from the bronx aging study. Neurology. 2005 Sep 27;65(6):882-6.

56. Paykel ES, Brayne C, Huppert FA, et al. Incidence of dementia in a population older than 75 years in the United Kingdom. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 Apr;51(4):325-32.

57. Katz MJ, Lipton RB, Hall CB, et al. Age and Sex Specific Prevalence and Incidence of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia and Alzheimer's dementia in Blacks and Whites: A Report From The Einstein Aging Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Oct-Dec;26(4):335-43. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e31823dbcfc.

58. Lobo A, Launer LJ, Fratiglioni L, et al. Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurologic Diseases in the Elderly Research Group. Neurology. 2000;54(11 Suppl 5):S4-9.

59. Peila R, White LR, Petrovich H, et al. Joint effect of the APOE gene and midlife systolic blood pressure on late-life cognitive impairment: the Honolulu-Asia aging study. Stroke. 2001 Dec 1;32(12):2882-9.

60. Helzner EP, Luchsinger JA, Scarmeas N, et al. Contribution of vascular risk factors to the progression in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar;66(3):343-8. doi: 10.1001/archneur.66.3.343.

61. Cereda E, Sansone V, Meola G, Malavazos AE. Increased visceral adipose tissue rather than BMI as a risk factor for dementia. Age Ageing. 2007 Sep;36(5):488-91. Epub 2007 Jul 26.

62. Razay G, Williams J, King E, et al. Blood pressure, dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the OPTIMA longitudinal study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009; 28(1):70-4. doi: 10.1159/000230877. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

63. Stewart R, Asonganyi B, Sherwood R. Plasma homocysteine and cognitive impairment in an older British African-Caribbean population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Jul;50(7):1227-32.

64. Honig LS, Tang MX, Albert S, et al. Stroke and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 Dec;60(12):1707-12.

65. White L, Launer L. Relevance of cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease: a review of accrued findings from the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2006 Jul-Sep;20(3 Suppl 2):S79-83.

66. Duron E, Hanon O. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):363-81.

67. Chiang CJ, Yip PK, Wu SC, et al. Midlife risk factors for subtypes of dementia: a nested case-control study in Taiwan. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;15(9):762-71. Epub 2007 Jul 10.

68. Peters ME, Rosenberg PB, Steinberg M, et al. Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for progression from CIND to dementia: The Cache County Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;21(11):1116-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.049. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

69. Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta- analytic study. Psychol Sci. 2003 Mar;14(2):125-30.

70. Alzheimer's Association. 2015 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Mar;11(3):332-84.

71. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Brindle P. Derivation and validation of QStroke score for predicting risk of ischaemic stroke in primary care and comparison with other risk scores: a prospective open cohort study. BMJ. 2013 May 2;346:f2573. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f2573.

72. Leung R, Tang C, Haddad S, et al. How older adults learn to use mobile devices: survey and eld investigations. ACM Trans Access Comput. 2012;4:11. doi: 10.1145/2399193.2399195.

73. Arab F, Malik Y, Abdulrazak B. Evaluation of PhonAge: an adapted smartphone interface for elderly people. Lecture Notes Comp Sci. 2013;8120:547-54

74. Beratarrechea A, Lee AG, Willner JM, et al. The impact of mobile health interventions on chronic disease outcomes in developing countries: a systematic review. Telemed J E Health. 2014 Jan;20(1):75-82. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2012.0328. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

75. Powles J, Shrou A, Mathers C, et al. National cardiovascular prevention should be based on absolute disease risks, not levels of risk factors. Eur J Public Health. 2010 Feb;20(1):103- 6. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckp067. Epub 2009 Jun 8.

76. D'Agostino RB, Wolf PA, Belanger AJ, Kannel WB. Stroke risk profile: adjustment for antihypertensive medication. Stroke. 1994 Jan;25(1):40-3.

77. Parmar P, Krishnamurthi R, Ikram MA, et al. Stroke RiskometerTM Collaboration Writing Group. The Stroke RiskometerTM App: validation of a data collection tool and stroke risk predictor. Int J Stroke. 2015 Feb;10(2):231-44. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12411. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

78. Kasabov N, Feigin V, Hou ZG, et al. Evolving spiking neural networks for personalised modelling, classification and prediction of spatio-temporal patterns with a case study on stroke.Neurocomputing. 2014;134:269-79.

79. Фейгин ВЛ, Варакин ЮЯ, Кравченко МА и др. Новый подход к профилактике инсульта в России. Анналы клинической и экспериментальной неврологии 2015;9(4):19-23. [Feigin VL, Varakin YuYa, Kravchenko MA, et al. A new approach to the prevention of stroke in Russia. Annaly klinicheskoi i eksperimental'noi nevrologii 2015;9(4):19-23. (In Russ.)].

80. Shimada H, Makizako H, Doi T. Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention. Brain Nerve. 2016 Jul;68(7):799-808. doi: 10.11477/mf.1416200512.

81. Falck RS, Landry GJ, Liu-Ambrose T. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults but not older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a crosssectional study: 1157 June 1, 4: 00 PM-4:15 PM. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5 Suppl 1):316. doi: 10.1249/

82. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, et al. Association of muscle strength with the risk of Alzheimer disease and the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol. 2009 Nov;66(11):1339-44. doi: 10.1001/archneurol. 2009.240.

83. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, et al. Physical frailty is associated with incident mild cognitive impairment in community-based older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Feb;58(2):248-55. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02671.x.

84. Iso-Markku P, Waller K, Vuoksimaa E, et al. Midlife physical activity and cognition later in life: a prospective twin study. J Alzheimers Dis 2016. [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160377.

85. Carlson MC, Helms MJ, Steffens DC, et al. Midlife activity predicts risk of dementia in older male twin pairs. Alzheimers Dement. 2008 Sep;4(5): 324-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2008.07.002.

86. Heath M, Weiler J, Gregory MA, et al. A sixmonth cognitive-motor and aerobic exercise program improves executive function in persons with an objective cognitive impairment: a pilot investigation using the antisaccade task. J Alzheimers Dis 2016. [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160288.

87. van Rossum ME, Koek HL. Predictors of functional disability in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Maturitas. 2016 Aug;90:31-6. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.05.007. Epub 2016 May 14.

88. James BD, Boyle PA, Buchman AS, et al. Life space and risk of Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline in old age. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Nov;19(11):961-9. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e318211c219.

89. Chang CF, Yang RJ, Chang SF, et al. The effects of quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living on mild cognitive impairment in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing. J Nurs Res. 2016 Jun 27. [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000149.

90. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Bennett DA. Purpose in life is associated with a reduced risk of incident disability among community-dwelling older persons. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;18(12):1093-102. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181d6c259.

91. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Barnes LL, Bennett DA. Effect of a purpose in life on risk of incident Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older persons. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;67(3):304-10. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.208.

92. Solfrizzi V, Panza F, Frisardi V, et al. Diet and Alzheimer's disease risk factors or prevention: the current evidence. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 May;11(5):677-708. doi: 10.1586/ern.11.56. doi: 10.1586/ern.11.56.

93. Solfrizzi V, Capurso C, D'Introno A, et al. Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008 Jan;8(1):133-58.

94. Rouch L, Cestac P, Hanon O, et al. Antihypertensive drugs, prevention of cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review of observational studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, with discussion of potential mechanisms. CNS Drugs. 2015 Feb;29(2):113-30. doi: 10.1007/s40263-015-0230-6.

95. Kherada N, Heimowitz T, Rosendorff C. Antihypertensive therapies and cognitive function: a review. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015 Oct;17(10):79. doi: 10.1007/s11906-015-0592- 7.

96. Ohrui T, Tomita N, Sato-Nakagawa T, et al. Effects of brain-penetrating ACE inhibitors on Alzheimer disease progression. Neurology. 2004 Oct 12;63(7):1324-5.

97. Парфенов ВА, Старчина ЮА. Когнитивные расстройства и их лечение у больных артериальной гипертензией. Русский медицинский журнал. 2007; 15(2):117-21. [Parfenov VA, Starchina YuA. Cognitive disorders and their treatment in patients with arterial hypertension. Russkii meditsinskii zhurnal. 2007; 15(2):117-21. (In Russ.)].

98. Вахнина НВ, Парфенов ВА, Никитина ЛЮ. Когнитивные нарушения при инсульте и их лечение мемантином. Клиническая геронтология. 2005; 11(8):49-52. [akhnina NV, Parfenov VA, Nikitina LYu. Cognitive impairment in stroke and treatment with memantine. Klinicheskaya gerontologiya. 2005; 11(8):49-52. (In Russ.)].

99. Дамулин ИВ. Сосудистые когнитивные нарушения у пожилых. Русский медицинский журнал. 2009;17(11):721-5. [Damulin IV. Vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly. Russkii meditsinskii zhurnal. 2009;17(11):721-5. (In Russ.)].

100. Левин ОС, Усольцева НИ, Юнищенко НА. Постинсультные когнитивные нарушения: механизмы развития и подходы к лечению. Трудный пациент. 2007;5(8):29-36. [Levin OS, Usol'tseva NI, Yunishchenko NA. Post-stroke cognitive impairment: mechanisms of development and treatment approaches. Trudnyi patsient. 2007;5(8):29-36. (In Russ.)].

101. Cotroneo AM, Castagna A, Putignano S, et al. Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:131-7. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S38420.

102. Castagna A, Cotroneo AM, Ruotolo G, Gareri P. The CITIRIVAD Study: CITIcoline plus RIVAstigmine in Elderly Patients Affected with Dementia Study. Clin Drug Investig. 2016 Sep 1; [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1007/s40261-016-0454-3

103. Malouf M, Grimley EJ, Areosa SA. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for cognition and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4): CD004514. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004514.

104. Malouf R, Grimley Evans J. The effect of vitamin B6 on cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4): CD004393. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004393.

105. Guekht A, Skoog I, Korczin AD, et al. A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of actovegin in patients with post stroke cognitive impairment ARTEMIDA study design. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2013 Dec 14;3(1):459-67. doi: 10.1159/000357122. eCollection 2013.


For citations:

Merkin A.G., Kazhin V.A., Komarov A.N., Fonarev A.V., Priyatel V.A., Nikiforov I.A. Prevention of cerebrovascular diseases and cognitive impairment in psychiatric and neurological practice: A literature review. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2016;8(3):95-100. (In Russ.)

Views: 614

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2074-2711 (Print)
ISSN 2310-1342 (Online)