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Neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication

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The paper reviews the present-day Russian and foreign literature on neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication. The most common manifestations of alcohol disease include alcoholic polyneuropathy (PNP) and alcohol-induced skeletal muscle injury. The clinical polymorphism of alcoholic PNP is discussed. The paper considers a chronic sensory automatic form due to the direct toxic effects of ethanol and its metabolites during long-term alcohol intoxication, as well as acute/subacute sensorimotor neuropathy, the basis for the pathogenesis of which is B group vitamins, predominantly thiamine, deficiency that develops in the presence of drinking bouts concurrent with malnutrition and/or alcohol-related gastrointestinal tract diseases. In addition to nonuse of alcohol and a properly balanced diet, antioxidant therapy with alphalipoic acid and neurotropic B group vitamins is considered to be pathogenetic therapy for neuropathy. The most common and least studied clinical
form of alcohol-induced musculoskeletal injury is chronic alcoholic myopathy (AM), the diagnostic standard for which is morphometric
and immunohistochemical examination of a muscle biopsy specimen. The morphological base for this form of myopathy is predominantly type 2 muscle fiber atrophy caused by impaired protein synthesis and a decreased regenerative potential of muscle fiber. The efficacy of antioxidants and leucine-containing amino acid mixtures in the treatment of chronic AM is discussed.

About the Authors

A. Yu. Emelyanova
Department of Nervous System Diseases and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Therapeutics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia 11, Rossolimo St., Moscow 119021
Russian Federation

O. E. Zinovyeva
Department of Nervous System Diseases and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Therapeutics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia 11, Rossolimo St., Moscow 119021
Russian Federation

N. D. Samkhaeva
Department of Nervous System Diseases and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Therapeutics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia 11, Rossolimo St., Moscow 119021
Russian Federation

N. S. Shcheglova
Department of Nervous System Diseases and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Therapeutics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia 11, Rossolimo St., Moscow 119021
Russian Federation


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For citations:

Emelyanova A.Yu., Zinovyeva O.E., Samkhaeva N.D., Shcheglova N.S. Neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2015;7(2):80-85. (In Russ.)

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