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Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

https://doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2015-1-11-18

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Abstract

Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs), the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them.
Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of і60 ml/min/1.73 m2, signs of renal lesion; 20 with Stages III CKD: a GFR of <60–30 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 11 with Stages VI CKD: a GFR of <30–15 ml/min/1.73 m2
Results and discussion. CIs were more common in the patients with Stages III–IV than in those with Stages I–II, as shown by the scores of the mini-mental state examination (p<0.001), the frontal assessment battery (p=0.001), and the regulatory function test (p<0.001). These tests showed that the magnitude of CIs increased with the higher stage of CKD. Stages III–IV CKD is an independent predictor of CIs in persons with predialysis-stage kidney lesion. CIs were found to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, abdominal obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and patient age. The signs of atherosclerotic lesion of the common carotid arteries and the indicators of arterial stiffness were also associated with the incidence and magnitude of CIs in CKD. 

The detection of CIs in patients with early CKD allows one to timely initiate adequate therapy aimed particularly at improving cerebral circulation, eliminating the impact of risk factors, and slowing down the vascular remodeling. The management tactics for patients with CKD must involve the identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, and duplex scanning of the wall of the common carotid arteries may be used as a noninvasive method to assess the risk of the development and progression of CIs in predialysis CKD. 

About the Authors

I. V. Rogova
Department of Internal, Occupational Diseases and Pulmonology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 2, B. Pirogovskaya St., Build. 4, Moscow 119435;
Russian Federation


V. V. Fomin
Department of Internal, Occupational Diseases and Pulmonology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 2, B. Pirogovskaya St., Build. 4, Moscow 119435;
Russian Federation


I. V. Damulin
Department of Nervous System Diseases and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Therapeutics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 11, Rossolimo St., Moscow 119435;
Russian Federation


E. G. Minakova
E.M. Tareev Clinic of Nephrology, Internal and Occupational Diseases, University Clinical Hospital Three, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 11, Rossolimo St., Build. 5, Moscow 119435;
Russian Federation


O. Yu. Selivanova
E.M. Tareev Clinic of Nephrology, Internal and Occupational Diseases, University Clinical Hospital Three, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 11, Rossolimo St., Build. 5, Moscow 119435;
Russian Federation


Yu. A. Petleva
Polyclinic One, Department for Presidential Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia; 26/28, Sivtsev Vrazhek, Moscow 119002
Russian Federation


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For citation:


Rogova I.V., Fomin V.V., Damulin I.V., Minakova E.G., Selivanova O.Y., Petleva Y.A. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2015;7(1):11-18. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2015-1-11-18

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