Preview

Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics

Advanced search

Analytical epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria

https://doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2021-1S-10-14

Full Text:

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disease, which etiology includes a complex of genetic and environmental factors. Data suggests that their interaction can influence the age of the clinical manifestations and the course of the disease. Therefore, the study of risk factors of MS in regions with different ethnic compositions of the population and climatic and geographical characteristics is of considerable interest.

Objective: to study MS risk factors prevalence in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria (RKB).

Patients and methods. This case-control study of the representation of risk factors included a cohort of 112 MS patients living in two regions of the RKB (Nalchik and the Prokhladnensky district). The MS diagnosis was established with the McDonald criteria (2017). MS risk factors were assessed with a unified questionnaire. 112 respondents (matched by the main demographic characteristics and place of residence) were included in the control group.

Results and discussion. MS patients from the Prokhladnensky district were significantly more likely to contact harmful chemical compounds, had higher consumption of smoked meat products; and suffered from viral infections more often (all differences were significant, p<0.05). More patients with MS, regardless of their place of residence, had a history of scarlet fever than the controls (n=23; 19.5% and n=14; 13.4%, ratio indicator 0.43 (95% CI 0.32–1.01), p=0.041), and the maximum significance of this factor was found in patients who suffered from scarlet fever after the age of 15 years (n=7; 6.3% and n=1; 0.9%, ratio indicator 2.45 (95% CI 1.92–3.21), p=0.041). More patients with MS had a history of chickenpox (n=70; 62.5% and n=55; 41.1%; ratio indicator 0.78 (95% CI 0.65–0.94, p=0.032), the frequency of this factor was most significant in early (up to 7 years) disease onset. Regardless of the place of residence, patients with MS were more likely to suffer from tonsillitis and sinusitis in childhood (p=0.032).

Conclusion. In the RKB, as in other regions of the Russian Federation, the risk of MS, along with a genetic predisposition, is primarily determined by environmental factors, such as contact with potentially harmful chemicals, history of somatic diseases, characteristics of the ecological situation, etc. Therefore, MS risk is higher in people exposed to these factors before the age of 7 years and does not depend on the place of residence. 

About the Authors

L. B. Tlapshokova
H.M. Berbekov Kabardino-Balkarian State University
Russian Federation

173, Chernyshevsky St., Nalchik 360004



A. R. Zikhova
H.M. Berbekov Kabardino-Balkarian State University
Russian Federation

Arina Rashidovna Zikhova

173, Chernyshevsky St., Nalchik 360004



References

1. Boyko AN, Gusev EI. Modern algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis, based on an individual assessment of the patient's condition. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova. 2017;117(2-2):92-106. doi: 10.17116/jnevro20171172292-106 (In Russ.).

2. Kozhieva M, Naumova N, Alikina N, et al. The Core of Gut Life: Firmicutes Profile in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. Life (Basel). 2021;11(1):55. doi: 10.3390/life11010055

3. The Lancet Neurology. Multiple sclerosis under the spotlight. Lancet Neurol. 2021 Jul;20(7):497. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00170-8

4. Khaibullin TN, Kirillova EV, Bikbaev RM, Boyko AN. Clinical-epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis and neuroopticomyelitis in the Central Asia. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova. 2019;119(2-2):12-7. doi: 10.17116/jnevro20191192212 (In Russ.).

5. Vavasour IM, Sun P, Graf C, et al. Characterization of multiple sclerosis neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration with relaxation and diffusion basis spectrum imaging. Mult Scler. 2021 Jun 16;13524585211023345. doi: 10.1177/13524585211023345. Online ahead of print.

6. Hedström AK, Alfredsson L, Olsson T. Environmental factors and their interactions with risk genotypes in MS susceptibility. Curr Opin Neurol. 2016 Jun;29(3):293-8. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000329

7. Sadovnick AD, Yee IM, Criscuoli M, DeLuca GC. Genes and environment in multiple sclerosis: Impact of temporal changes in the sex ratio on recurrence risks. Mult Scler. 2021 Jun 8;13524585211020221. doi: 10.1177/13524585211020221. Online ahead of print.

8. Popova EV, Kiselev IS, Boyko AN, et al. Polymorphic variants of the immune response genes as risk factors for primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova. 2017;117(2-2):14-21. doi: 10.17116/jnevro20171172214-21 (In Russ.).

9. Boiko A. Guidelines for questionnaires to be used in case-control studies of MS. Neurology. 1997 Aug;49(2 Suppl 2):S75-80. doi: 10.1212/wnl.49.2_suppl_2.s75

10. Bakhtiyarova KZ, Goncharova ZA. Multiple sclerosis in the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Rostov region: comparative epidemiological characteristics. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova. 2014;114(2):5-9 (In Russ.).

11. Khodova MA, Sivertseva SA, Smirnova NF, et al. Ecological characteristics of the place of residence and the risk of multiple sclerosis in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova. 2014;114(10):6-12 (in Russ.).

12. Boyko AN, Kukel TM, Lysenko MA, et al. Clinical epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Moscow. Modern clinical and demographic features on the example of the population of one of the districts of the city. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova. 2014;114(2):10-5 (In Russ.).

13. Magomedov MM, Khalitov IA, Mikhailova BI. Multiple sclerosis in Dagestan. Fundamental'nyye issledovaniya. 2009;(9):51-2 (In Russ.).


Review

For citations:


Tlapshokova L.B., Zikhova A.R. Analytical epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2021;13(1S):10-14. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2021-1S-10-14

Views: 119


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2074-2711 (Print)
ISSN 2310-1342 (Online)