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Benign essential blepharospasm: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, botulinum toxin therapy

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Blepharospasm (BPS) is a variant of focal dystonia manifested by involuntary eyelid spasms with eye closure and/or increased spontaneous blinking. Along with motor symptoms, this condition is characterized by sensory, affective, and cognitive disorders. Patients with BPS are found to have changes in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, primary/secondary sensorimotor and visual areas according to functional magnetic resonance imaging. This may reflect the involvement of above regions in suppressing defective movement and sensorimotor disintegration. Botulinum toxin therapy is the most effective treatment for BPS. The advantage of Xeomin® that does not contain complexing proteins, is characterized by a low probability of antibody production, is the ability to vary between-injection intervals. Probably, botulinum toxin therapy has a pathogenetic and modifying impact on BPS.

About the Author

Z. A. Zalyalova
Kazan State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia; Republican Consultative and Diagnostic Center for Extrapyramidal Pathology and Botulinum Toxin Therapy, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tatarstan
Russian Federation

Zuleikha Abdullazyanovna Zalyalova

Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation
49, Butlerov St., Kazan 420012

65, Nikolay Ershov St., Kazan 420061



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For citations:

Zalyalova Z.A. Benign essential blepharospasm: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, botulinum toxin therapy. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics. 2021;13(1):119-125. (In Russ.)

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